International Perspectives In Community Health

International Perspectives In Community Health

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International Perspectives In Community Health

I need these questions answered in about 200 words each and not plagiarized. Please include each answer with references.




Defining international or global health is important and some consider global health synonymous with public health. Select one of the following two statements:

1. Global health is public health requiring similar training and research methods.

2. Global health is a separate discipline requiring specific training and research methods.

Identify at least two arguments that support the selected statement and provide sources to support those arguments. Identify and discuss one historical event that is important in how global health is understood today and how that event supports your argument. For one of your substantive responses, identify another classmate that selected the opposite statement and provide at least one point of agreement and one point of disagreement.?


Poverty is central to health and development in low-income and middle-income countries. State your definition of poverty prior to studying public health. Based on this definition, what would be the focus of poverty alleviation solutions? Based on the relational and spiritual definition of poverty, discuss how the focus of solutions would change to include a holistic approach. Identify an example of a health program or solution that integrates a relational definition of poverty. Watch the video on “Defining Poverty” to help in responding to this discussion question.


Read Chapter 4 in For the Love of God: Principles and Practice of Compassion in Missions.

Read “The Stages of International (Global) Health: Histories of Successes or Successes of History?” by Birn, from Global Public Health (2009). URL:

Watch the “Introduction to PUB 655” video in the Participatory Community Development playlist, located in the Student Success Center. This video will explain the overall purpose and focus for this course. The course begins with a broad perspective and then concentrates specifically on engaging communities and vulnerable populations with a focus on Christian health missions. URL:

Watch the “Defining Poverty” video in the Participatory Community Development playlist, located in the Student Success Center, in preparation for responding to the discussion question in this topic. The video provides an alternative definition of poverty based on relationships rather than only material need. This definition informs one’s approach to poverty and engaging lower-income communities. URL:

Read “Towards a Common Definition of Global Health” by Koplan, Bond, Merson, Reddy, Rodriguez, Sewankambo, and Wasserheit, from The Lancet (2009).URL:

Read “Global Health Is Public Health” by Fried, Bentley, Buekens, Burke, Frenk, Klag, and Spencer, from The Lancet (2010). URL:

Read “Poverty Is a Lie,” by Todd, from Mission Frontiers (2011). URL:

Read “What Is Poverty?” located on The Chalmers Center website. URL:

Watch “Helping Without Hurting – Part 1: Reconsidering the Meaning of Poverty –,” by Life.Church (2014), located on the YouTube website. URL:

Read “The History of Foreign Aid,” by Phillips (2013), located on the ReliefWeb website. URL:

Read “How AIDS Invented Global Health,” from New England Journal of Medicine (2013). URL:

Read “Global Health Players: Organizations Involved in International Health,” located on the Global Health Education website. URL:

Read “Donor Motives for Foreign Aid,” by Bandyopadhyay and Vermann, from Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review (2013). URL:



Review the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals, then evaluate the following statement by Katja Iversen, CEO of Women Deliver: “The SDGs are not a menu, they are a roadmap. We need to ask ourselves: Who can we do this with, and who does this affect?”

Discuss the difference between a roadmap and menu in reference to the SDGs and why a roadmap analogy makes more sense. In your response, reference at least two different goals between Goals 4 and 17 that are connected to health. Additionally, identify two key targets for reaching Goal 3 and why you think these are critical. Discuss two actions you could take to help make progress toward reaching the SDGs as a global society. Refer to the United Nations’ “The Lazy Person’s Guide to Saving the World” in the Topic Materials.


Visit “Global: Both Sexes, All Ages, 2016, DALYs” on the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation GBD Compare Data Visualization Hub website. Compare the primary causes of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from countries in two different socio-demographic index levels or economic regions. Identify three social or political-economic differences that help explain the differences you observed. Discuss the utility of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure as a composite measure of health. Why is the DALY helpful given the different categories of Communicable, Noncommunicable, and Injury when it comes to comparing mortality and morbidity?


Read Chapter 11 in For the Love of God: Principles and Practice of Compassion in Missions.

Explore the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) page of the United Nations website. Study all 17 goals in preparation for a discussion question in this topic. URL:

Explore the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation website.URL:

Explore the Data Repository on the Global Health Observatory (GHO) page of the World Health Organization (WHO) website. URL:

Explore the Health Data Tools and Statistics page of the Partners in Information Access for the Public Health Workforce website. URL:

Explore the Global Burden of Disease page, located on The Lancet website. URL:

Read “The Lazy Person’s Guide to Saving the World,” located on the United Nations website. URL:

Watch “Chris Murray and the Global Burden of Disease,” by Gates (2015), located on the YouTube website. URL:

Watch “Causes of Death: Global Burden of Disease Study 2015,” by The Lancet TV (2016), located on the YouTube website. URL:

Watch “What Does a $100 Million Public Health Data Revolution Look Like?” by TEDMED (2013), located on the YouTube website. URL:

Watch “The State of Global Health,” by Global Health With Greg Martin (2013), located on the YouTube website. URL:

Watch, “The DALY Show, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY),” by Kahn (Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies) (2014), located on the YouTube website. URL:

Explore “Global: Both Sexes, All Ages, 2016, DALYs, ” located on the GBD Compare/Viz Hub page of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation website. URL:



Globalization involves several features, including governance structures, communication, mobility, technology, and the environment. Based on the readings for this topic, identify two features of globalization that you think are the most important and discuss one example for each as to how it influences health. Identify a health issue that was not a global threat in the past but, due to changes in globalization, is now a global threat. Discuss what countries might do to prepare for this emerging health threat considering the issue of human rights in low-income and middle-income countries.


Public health and health care systems are impacted by globalization the exchange of new ideas, and opportunities to influence the larger field of global health. As you consider the factors related to globalization, discuss how low-income and middle-income countries should navigate the balance in building strong public health systems alongside an efficient health care system. What three pieces of advice would you give the Minister of Health in a country like Zambia or Nepal when it comes to the structure and integration of health care and public health?


Read “The Health Impacts of Globalisation: A Conceptual Framework,” by Huynen, Martens, and Hilderink, from Globalization and Health (2005). URL:

Read “Participant Guidelines: Systems Tools for Complex Health Systems: A Guide to Creating a Causal Loop Diagrams,” by de Pinho (Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health) (2015), located on the World Health Organization (WHO) website. URL:

Read “Guide: How to Process Map,” by the Agency for Clinical Innovation (2015). URL:

Read “Building From Common Foundations: The World Health Organization and Faith-Based Organizations in Primary Healthcare,” by Bandy et al. (2008), located on the World Health Organization website. URL:

Read “Globalization of Health Care: Designing, Developing, and Implementing a Just World Class Health System in a Frontier Market,” by Waruingi et al., from Journal of Global Health Care Systems (2013). URL:

Read “The Global Health System: Actors, Norms, and Expectations in Transition,” by Szlezak et al., from PLOS Medicine (2010). URL:

Read “Assessing the Health Impact of Transnational Corporations: Its Importance and a Framework,” by Baum et al., from Globalization and
Health (2016).URL:

Read “Framing International Trade and Chronic Disease,” by Labonte, Mohindra, and Lencucha, from Globalization and Health (2011). URL:

Read “Declaration of Alma-Ata,” by the International Conference on Primary Health Care (1978), located on the World Health Organization (WHO) website. URL:

Read “A View of Health Care Around the World,” by Wallace, from Annals for Family Medicine (2013). URL:

Read “Health Care Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries,” by Mills, from New England Journal of Medicine (2014). URL:

Read “The WHO Health Systems Framework,” located on the World Health Organization (WHO) website. URL:

Read “Five Capitalist Democracies and How They Do It,” by Frontline (2008), located on the PBS website. URL:

Explore the Management Sciences For Health website. URL:



Social and economic inequalities lead to imbalances in opportunities for advancement and growth. These imbalances lead to a greater sense of insecurity and lack of control. Microfinance or village banking programs are approaches used to encourage shared risk, security in savings, and opportunities for capacity building. Discuss the potential of such microfinance programs in lower-income communities where irregular income is common and their impact on reducing social and economic disparities. In your response, identify a specific example of such a program in a low-income or middle-income country and critically discuss one challenge and one benefit of the program. Evaluate the relationship between economic microfinance programs and social inequalities..


Inequalities lead to feelings of despair, depression, and anxiety often associated with substance use disorders. Consider the following scenario: Mr. Banda is a middle-aged man living in rural Malawi with a wife and three young children. He often travels to find work while his wife and children maintain the family farm to sustain themselves. Recently, Mr. Banda found out he was HIV positive without access to HIV antiretroviral therapy in the village. He became severely depressed and turned to alcohol to help him cope as an available social outlet. Over time, he started to drink on credit against his family’s harvest. When harvest time came, the tavern owner showed up at Mr. Banda’s home demanding half of his harvest to pay off his debt. Mr. Banda has come to you to ask for help. How would you respond to Mr. Banda after he shared his story with you? Discuss three social or economic inequalities influencing Mr. Banda’s actions and options. How would you leverage the strengths of faith-based organizations or

churches in the area to address these factors influencing Mr. Banda’s options assuming others in the community are going through similar situations? Watch the “Aid and Development” video to help you in answering this discussion question.


Read Chapter 8 in For the Love of God: Principles and Practice of Compassion in Missions.

Read “Mental Health Services Provision in Low and Middle-Income Countries,” by Rathod et al., from Health Services Insights (2017). URL:

Watch the “Aid and Development” video in the Participatory Community Development playlist, located in the Student Success Center, in preparation for responding to a discussion question in this topic. This video discusses how humanitarian aid and charity influence the definition of development. A faith-based approach to holistic development is important to integrate participation and strong relationships with community development work that continues beyond relief and rehabilitation activities.URL:

Read “Faith-Based Organizations and Development: Prospects and Constraints,” by Olarinmoye, from Transformation (2012). URL:

Read “Faith-Based and Secular Humanitarian Organizations,” by Ferris, from International Review of the Red Cross (2005). URL:

Read “Poverty and Mental Disorders: Breaking the Cycle in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries,” by Lund et al., from The Lancet (2011). URL:

Read “Principles of Excellence in Integral Mission, located on the Accord Network website. URL:



Cultural competence and cultural humility are central in engaging and communicating with community members and leaders. Provide your own definition of cultural humility in the context of public health. How does your definition compare to the points made about cultural humility in the Topic Material entitled “Reflections on Cultural Humility”? In addition to cultural humility, describe one other principle necessary when communicating public health content to engage communities to act. Describe a real example of this principle in action..


Sustainable community health strategies in economically diverse communities constitute the goal of public health. An international perspective is helpful to consider the diverse cultural beliefs, social systems, and values that make up a community. True transformation happens from within the community and includes intentional focus on the whole person and surrounding influences. Asset-based community development (ABCD) is an approach used to help facilitators focus on community assets rather than only discussing problems and needs. Evaluate and critique the ABCD approach. Is it realistic to think that poor communities have existing and unrecognized assets that can lead to economic opportunities? Discuss two benefits and two challenges when it comes to the effectiveness of ABCD in mobilizing communities for development.


Read Chapter 5 in For the Love of God: Principles and Practice of Compassion in Missions.

Read “Connecting Communities and Complexity: A Case Study in Creating the Conditions for Transformational Change,” by Durie and Wyatt, from Critical Public Health (2013). URL:

Read “Cultural Humility: Measuring Openness to Culturally Diverse Clients,” by Hook, Davis, Owen, Worthington, and Utsey, from Journal of Counseling Psychology (2013).  URL:

Read “Reflections on Cultural Humility,” by Waters and Asbill, from American Psychological Association CYF News (2013). URL:

Read “Tyranny/Transformation: Power and Paradox in Participatory Development,” by Christens and Speer, from Forum: Qualitative Social Research (2006). URL:

Read “A Basic Guide to ABCD Community Organizing,” by McKnight, located on the DePaul University website. URL:

Read “Wholistic Worldview Analysis: Understanding Community Realities,” by Jayakaran (2007), located on the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) website. URL:

Read “Participatory Analysis for Community Action (PACA) Training Manual,” from the Peace Corps Information Collection and Exchange, Publication No. M0053(2007), located on the Peace Corps website. URL:

Read “Empowering Communities: Participation Techniques for Community-Based Programme Development: Volume 2: Participant’s Handbook,” by De Negri, Thomas, Ilinigumugabo, Muvandi, and Lewis(1998), located on the Participatory Methods website. URL:

Read “Generic Processes of Appreciative Inquiry,” located on The Center for Appreciative Inquiry website.URL:

Watch “Appreciative Inquiry,” by Townsin (2013), located on the YouTube website. URL:

Read “Ten Seed Technique,” by Jayakaran, located on the Dr. Ravi Jayakaran website. URL:

Read “Toolkit,” from the Asset-Based Community Development Institute, located on the DePaul University website.URL:

Read “Open Questions,” by Goetzman, located on the Global Learning Partners, Inc. website.



Discuss three of the nine Sphere Core Humanitarian Standards. Identify the one that you think is most often neglected in the case of natural disasters or complex humanitarian emergencies. Discuss characteristics of complex humanitarian emergencies in your response. Share a real example of how these standards were (or were not) applied in a recent humanitarian crisis.


Sign up to receive the daily e-newsletter from Global Health NOW. Identify one story or current situation from Global Health NOW or the United National Refugee Agency about displaced people. Comment on the cause of the displacement, what international governments and nongovernmental agencies are doing to serve the people physically and mentally, and gaps that the faith-based community and churches could fill. Discuss the link between relief and development in your response and your suggestions for sustainable health promotion and development among the displaced population.


Read Chapters 9 and 12 in For the Love of God: Principles and Practice of Compassion in Missions.

Read “Core Humanitarian Standard on Quality and Accountability,” by the Core Humanitarian Standard Alliance, Group URD, and the Sphere Project (2014), located on the Core Humanitarian Standard website.URL:

Read “Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: A Review of Epidemiological and Response Models,” by Burkle, from Journal of Postgraduate Medicine (2006). URL:;year=2006;volume=52;issue=2;spage=110;epage=115;aulast=Burkle

Read “The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the ACCRA Agenda for Action,” (2005/2008), located on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) website. URL:

Watch “Relief, Rehabilitation, and Development,” by Corbett, located on the Chalmers Center website. URL:

Read “Relationship Between Humanitarian and Development Aid,” by Hinds (2015), located on the GSDRC Applied Knowledge Services website. URL:

Read “Remaking the Case for Linking, Relief, Rehabilitation, and Development: How LRRD Can Become a Practically Useful Concept for Assistance in Difficult Places,” by Mosel and Levine (2014), located on the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) website. URL:

Read “Integrating Mental Health Into Existing Systems of Care During and After Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: Rethinking the Experience,” by Ventevogel, Perez-Sales, Fernandez-Liria, and Baingana, from Intervention (2011). URL:

Explore the UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency website.URL:

Explore the Refugee Highway website.URL:

Explore the International Committee of the Red Cross website.URL:

Explore the Humanitarian Health Action section of the World Health Organization (WHO) website.URL:

Explore the Global Health NOW website and sign up to receive the daily Global Health NOW e-newsletter.URL:



The textbook states, that often orphanages “ignore the power and presence of local communities and extended families in caring for orphans. Not only that, but many times exacerbate the challenges faced by orphans because they contribute to the cycle of ‘attachment and abandonment,’ owning to the short-term nature of these volunteer efforts” (p. 191). Evaluate this statement given what you know about the well-being of children. In what situations would orphanages or institutions for children be appropriate options and at what ages? How would a country’s Department or Ministry of Health apply a Health in All Policies approach to address the economic and social issues presented in this statement?.


Children are foundational to health of communities made up of family units. Understanding the context within which children are living, playing, growing, and developing is necessary as culture influences the definition of health. However, it is easy to focus on the physical needs of children while neglecting the emotional and spiritual needs of children. Provide one example from the Bible of how children were served spiritually or emotionally. Discuss how this example might inform your approach in helping culturally diverse families holistically support their children. Identify and discuss how emotional and mental health in children might look different based on different cultural definitions of health..


Read Chapters 3 and 10 in For the Love of God: Principles and Practice of Compassion in Missions.

Read “Evaluating the Strength of Faith: Potential Comparative Advantages of Faith-Based Organizations Providing Health Services in Sub-Saharan Africa,” by Lipsky from Public Administration and Development (2011). URL:

Read “Measuring the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of Young Children in Resource-Limited Settings: A Review of the Existing Measures,” by Paltzer, Barker, and Witt, from Quality of Life Journal (2013). URL:

Read “On Understanding Orphan Statistics,” located on the Christian Alliance for Orphans website. URL:

Read “The Malawi Development Assessment Tool (MDAT): The Creation, Validation, and Reliability of a Tool to Assess Child Development in Rural African Settings,” by Gladstone, Lancaster, Umar, Nyirenda, Kayira, ven den Broek, and Smyth, from PLOS Medicine (2010). URL:

Read “Every Child Alive: The Urgent Need to End Newborn Deaths,” by Devine and Taylor (2018), located on the UNICEF website. URL:

Review the website for the Journal of Global Health (JoGH) collection covering maternal, neonatal and child health, Engaging Communities for Improving Mothers’ and Children’s Health: Reviewing the Evidence of Effectiveness in Resource-Constrained Settings, edited by Perry(2017). Download and read the following selection: “Comprehensive Review of the Evidence Regarding the Effectiveness of Community Based Primary Health Care in Improving Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health: 6. Strategies Used by Effective Projects” by Perry et al. URL:

Explore the Millions Saved page of the Center for Global Development website. URL:

Explore the Christian Connections for International Health (CCIH) website. URL:

Explore the Early Child Development page of the World Health Organization (WHO) website. URL:

Explore the UNICEF website.URL:



Partnerships involve strong servant leadership that builds trust based on transparency and honesty. Often, the needed programs and practices are known but a respectful partnership with the community is missing. Based on your experiences and the assigned reading, discuss the importance of servant leadership in building trust and sustainable partnerships. Identify an example of someone who exhibited servant leadership skills in building a cross-cultural partnership and why these efforts were successful. State whether you agree or disagree with the following statement and provide two reasons for your stance: A true partnership involves risk shared by all parties.


The local church is often seen as an access point to the community but rarely engaged in a true partnership. Discuss two challenges and two benefits of building partnerships that involve the local church or other communities of faith. Describe two criteria you think are necessary for healthy and effective partnerships that take into consideration the challenges you mentioned. Share an example of how you have applied these criteria in your life. For additional insight in responding to this discussion question, watch the “Partnership Development” video.


Read Chapter 13 in For the Love of God: Principles and Practice of Compassion in Missions.

Read “Understanding Global Health and Development Partnerships: Perspectives From African and Global Health System Professionals,” by Barnes, Brown, and Harman, from Social Science and Medicine (2016). URL:

Read “Working Together For Global Health Goals: The United States Agency for International Development and Faith-Based Organizations,” by Powell, from Christian Journal for Global Health (2014). URL:

Read “Partnerships for Development: Perspectives From Global Health,” by the United Nations System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda (2013), located on the United Nations website. URL:

Read “What Makes a Global Health Partnership Succeed?” by Saldinger (2014), from the Devex website. URL:

Watch “Start Small, Change the World: Lori DiPrete Brown at TEDxUWMadison,” by TEDx Talks (2014), located on the YouTube website. URL:

Read “The 7 Standards,” located on the Standards of Excellence in Short-Term Mission website. URL: